Chapter 14-Section 1

Chapter 14-Section 1
Revolutions in Russia
-Romanovs were still in power-autocratic
-Bloody Sunday- peaceful protesters present petition to Czar Nicholas II asking for
a representative assembly-protesters killed
-Soviets (local councils) are organized to organize strikes and gain political rights
-Unrest breaks out throughout Russia
-Duma-Russia’s first parliament is created
-decades of political, social, and economic unrest (especially involvement in WWI)
will lead to Nicholas abdicating the throne in February, 1917 (300 years of
Romanov Rule over).
-March, 1917-Russian Revolution
-Provisional Government established based on democratic principals
-fails to address the hardships of Russians-food shortages, land for peasants,
-critical mistake of Provisional government-STAYS IN WWI
-Petrograd soviet (revolutionary council) starts to gain influence throughout
-October, 1917-October Revolution (Bolshevik Revolution)-2nd part of the Russian
-led by Vladimir Lenin and the Bolshevik Party
-revolution based on Marxism
-Lenin promises “Peace, Land, and Bread”
-overthrows Provisional Government
-transforms Russia politically and economically
-Bolsheviks renamed Communists
-Russia renamed the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
-Lenin gets Russia out of WWI, begins land reforms
-more civil unrest
-War Communism-all businesses under the control of the gov’t; the gov’t makes
all planning and production decisions, food rationing, private ownership of
business prohibited
-when civil strife ended, war communism replaced by New Economic Policy
-NEP allows elements of capitalism-has limited success
-Lenin died in 1922
Joseph Stalin-Man of Steel
Totalitarian Dictator (total control)
Replaced NEP with 5 year plan-build a industrialized state (steel production,
electrical, etc.).
-transform from agrarian economy to a modern, industrialized nation
-collectivization-gov’t takes control of land (collective farms), (angers peasantsespecially Kulaks)
-goal is to improve agricultural production
-collectives fail-resistance and man-made famine-millions dead
-Great Purge-Stalin has millions executed
-terror, fear, and censorship were hallmarks of his rule