Ice Berg Modelsample

Iceberg Model
Anna Ignatjeva
 General facts about the culture
 Surface level of Russian culture
 Intermediate level of Russian culture
 Deep level of Russian culture
Iceberg Model definition
 “Culture is like an iceberg: the deep layers are hidden from
our view. We tend to see and hear only the uppermost layers
of cultural artifacts. We can also witness the exchange of
overt verbal and nonverbal symbol. However, to understand
a culture-or a person in a cultural community- with any
depth, we must match their underlying values coherently
with their respective norms, meanings, and symbols” (TingToomey & Chung, 2012, p.16).
General Facts about Russia
 Area: 6,592,800 sq miles
 Population: 143 million people
 Language: Russian
 Currency: Ruble
 Capital City: Moscow
Geographical location
Surface level
 Drink a lot, especially vodka
 Matroshka dolls
 Cold climate
 Associated with “cold war,” spies, and communists
 “Babushka”
 Good looking women
 A lot of bears
 Rich mafia guys
Intermediate level
 Hierarchical social structure
 Respect to elders
 Respect to authority
 Governing authority
 Mafia/robber barons
 Hospitality once Russians get to know you
 Formality
 Language
 Settings and dress
Intermediate level continued
 Russian language dominant despite many ethnic
 Eye contact in public places may be taken as a
challenge or a “dirty look”; not welcome
 Impression management and appearances matter;
don’t be worse off than others (Keeping up with
the Jones’s)
 Corruptions prevalent, which leads to personal
relationships and favors to be above law
Deep level
 Value of education and high literacy rates
 Great sense of national pride
 Holidays:
 New Year
 23rd of February- Defender of Motherland Day
 8th of March- International Women’s Day (started
as a political activism event but is celebrated as
social holiday today)
 9th of May-Victory Day (World War II)
 1st of September- Start of new School year
Deep level
 Deep spirituality and superstition
 Religion: Russian Orthodoxy dominant;
other faiths looked down upon
 No baby or wedding showers celebrated
 Value arts and theater
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 Many stereotypes about Russia
 Formality in language and dress
 Respect for authority and elders
 Value of education and arts
 Majority Russian Orthodox
References in APA format
 Central Intelligence Agency. (2012). Retrieved from
 General Facts about Russia. (2010). Retrieved from
 Ting-Toomey, S., & Chung, L. C. (2012). Understanding
Intercultural Communication. New York, NY: Oxford
University Press.