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north war

Kazan State Medical University
Department of History, Philosophy and Sociology
"Causes, course and results of the Northern War"
The work was performed by:
Student of the Faculty of General Medicine
Sadykov Ruslan Rafitovich
Candidate of Historical Sciences,
Associate Professor of the Department of History, Philosophy and Sociology
Sharafutdinov Denis Radievich
Kazan 2023
1. Introduction................3
1.1. Relevance.................................................................................... 3
1.2. Purpose................3
1.3. Tasks................................. 3
2. Main part................................................................3
2.1. The main participants in the conflict............................................3
2.2. Prerequisites and causes. ................................................................................3
2.3. The course of the war................................................4
2.3.1. 1700-1701................................................................... 4
2.3.2. 1701-1709................................................................... 5
2.3.3. 1710-1718.................................................................. 13
2.3.4. 1718-1721.................................................................. 15
2.4. Results of the war.................................................................................... 16
2.4.1. Russia. ................................................................................16
2.4.2. Finland................................................................................17
2.4.3. Sweden.................................................................................... 17
2.4.4. Poland.................................................................................... 18
3. Conclusion.................................................................... 19
4. References.................................................... 20
Relevance: Any conflict has an impact on its participants. The Great Northern War
is no exception. Its influence on Europe and especially on Russia of the 18th
century is extremely multifaceted and ambiguous, so the study of its goals, course
and results is a prerequisite for understanding the most significant events that
occurred with various states of that time.
Purpose: to establish the causes, course and results of the Northern War
1. Describe the prerequisites and causes of the course of the Northern War
2. To trace and describe the course and course of events of the Northern War
3. To establish the results and significance of the Northern War
The main participants in the conflict:
On the one hand, the participants in the war include: the Russian kingdom,
the Electorate of Saxony, the Danish-Norwegian Union, the Polish-Lithuanian
Commonwealth (1700-1704, 1704-1709, 1709-1720), part of the Zaporozhye
Cossacks and a number of other countries (the Duchy of Courland and Semigallia,
the Moldavian principality, the Kingdom of Prussia, the Electorate of Hanover
On the other hand, there were: Sweden, England (Great Britain), the
Ottoman Empire, Holstein, the Duchy of Holstein-Gottorp, the Kingdom of
Ireland, the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (1702-1709), the Electorate of
Hanover (1719-1721). Prerequisites and reasons: The fundamental factor for the
start of the war was the extremely advantageous geographical position of Sweden at that time: the country's territory included a significant part of the Baltic coast:
the entire coast of the Gulf of Finland, the modern Baltic States (without Lithuania
and Kaliningrad), part of the southern coast of the Baltic Sea. Also an important
component of the reasons was the young age and inexperience of the Swedish
monarch Charles XII, who was fifteen years old at the beginning of the war, which
allowed the countries of the Northern Union to count on a quick and easy victory
in the war. In addition to these reasons, each of the countries that unleashed the
conflict had its own reasons:
1. Russia: the formal reason for the outbreak of the conflict
and Russia's entry into the
Northern Union was the so-called "Riga incident", which occurred during
the "Great Embassy" and consisted in an extremely cold and insulting
attitude towards him on the part of the Swedes for Peter 1. In fact, the
main reason for the outbreak of hostilities was access to the Baltic Sea
and the subsequent strengthening of the state's position in the north.
2. Denmark: it was pushed to conflict with Sweden by a long-standing rivalry
for supremacy in the Baltic Sea: in 1658, Charles X Gustaf defeated the
Danes during a campaign in Jutland and Zealand and tore away part of
the provinces in the south of the Scandinavian Peninsula. Because of this,
Denmark lost the collection of duties when ships passed through the
Sunda Strait. In addition, the two countries competed sharply for
influence on Denmark's southern neighbor, the Duchy of SchleswigHolstein.
3. Electorate of Saxony:
The Elector of Saxony and King of Poland, Augustus II, wanted to
subjugate Livonia (Livonia), which was part of Sweden, which would
allow him to consolidate his power in the Commonwealth.
The course of the war
Beginning of the war: 1700-1701
Even before the formal declaration of war on February 11, 1700, the Saxon army
besieged Riga, and soon the Danish king Frederick IV declared war on Sweden,
proceeding to Friedrichstadt in Schleswig. The Russian Tsar Peter I declared war
on Sweden immediately after receiving the news of the conclusion of the
Constantinople Peace Treaty with the Ottoman Empire on August 19, 1700 and
marched to Narva.
The siege of Riga: It took place in two stages, both of which ended unsuccessfully
for the Saxon army - the first ambush failed due to the lack of siege weapons, the
second due to the brilliant actions of the Swedish commander Dahlberg
The unexpected landing of the Swedes near Copenhagen forced the Danish
government to conclude the Treaty of Travendal and abandon the alliance with
Augustus II, which also meant Denmark's withdrawal from the war
Battle of Narva: It is the first major battle of the Northern War. The campaign to
the fortress of Narva began to be carried out even before Peter learned about the
surrender of Denmark, in addition, the favorable outcome of this event in the
direction of Russia was hindered by: poor preparedness for war (the Russian army
was in the process of reorganization) with a strong enemy, the troops did not know
how to fight according to the rules of modern linear tactics, conduct
reconnaissance, were poorly armed; The artillery was obsolete and, most
importantly, the Russian army did not have its own national command staff, and
there were foreign officers in all major command positions. All these factors led to
the fact that near Narva, the Swedish army, consisting of about 10 and a half
thousand people, defeated the 40,000-strong Russian army, and
Charles XII received the nickname "Alexander the Great".
The results of the three major events of the beginning of the Northern War are: the
rise of the Swedish army above the rest of the military world, Denmark's
withdrawal from the conflict and the reform of the Russian army.
The events of this time period can be divided into two groups: the Russian
campaign and the Polish-Saxon campaign:
Russian campaign.
Reforming the Army:
After the defeat at Narva, assessing the reasons for the defeat of the Russian
troops, Peter I directed a lot of effort to prepare the army and the country for war
with Sweden: it was during this period that a new regular army was created, its
organizational structure, the system of training and education were improved, and
new weapons were produced. When updating artillery, the number of calibers is
reduced, there are only 12 of them. In a short time, by order of Peter I, the
Petrovsky Cannon Foundry was created, 300 new guns were cast. Peter I took
measures for the urgent restoration and construction of fortifications near Pskov,
Novgorod and Moscow.
Military operations:
At the Swedish military council, some of the generals spoke in favor of an attack
on Moscow, but Charles XII considered that the Russian army was too weak to
threaten the Swedes in the north in the coming years. This decision gave Tsar Peter
the opportunity to regain the strength of his army after the defeat at Narva and
resume offensive operations on. Taking advantage of the fact that the main forces
of the Swedes took part in the battles in Saxony and the Polish-Lithuanian
Commonwealth, Peter I already in 1701 ordered a new offensive in the north:
1. Russian
troops under the command of Boris Sheremetev invaded Swedish
Ingermanland and on December 30, 1701 won their first victory on the
battlefield in the Northern War at the Battle of Erestfer.
2. In July 1702, Russian troops won a second victory over Schlippenbach's
troops in the battle of Hummelshof.
3. On September 27, 1702, Russian troops under the command of Sheremetev besieged
the Swedish fortress of Noteburg, located at the source of the Neva River
from Lake Ladoga. On October 11, 1702, Russian troops stormed and won.
4. In the spring of 1703, after a week-long siege by Russian troops, the fortress
of Nyenschanz was taken at the confluence of the Okhta River into the
Thus, by the beginning of 1703, the Russian army occupied the banks along the
entire course of the Neva. The following year, Russian troops continued their
offensive and, under the command of Boris Sheremetev, entered Livonia by the
summer and besieged Dorpat. In July 1704, with the personal participation of Peter
I, the fortress was taken. In the summer of 1704, a second group of Russian troops
under the command of General Ogilvy entered Estonia and besieged Narva. By the
end of the summer, after the arrival of Peter I from Dorpat, this fortress was
taken. The successful assault on the fortresses demonstrated the increased skill and
equipment of the Russian army.
In June 1708, the Swedes moved in the direction of Smolensk. Peter I did
not know the plans of the enemy and the direction of his movement. The plans of
Charles XII were partially revealed at the end of June, when the main forces of the
Swedish army crossed the Berezina south of Borisov, and Lewenhaupt with a huge
convoy went south from Riga:
On July 3, 1708, Charles XII won the Battle of Golovchin over Russian
troops under the command of General A. I. Repnin. This battle was the last major
success of the Swedish army in Russia.
On July 6, 1708, Charles XII occupied Mogilev and captured the crossings
of the Dnieper.
The further advance of the Swedish army was slowed down by the scorched-earth
tactics used by the Russians. Dozens of Belarusian villages were burned, and the
Swedes had to move around the devastated area, experiencing an acute shortage of
provisions. After standing for three weeks at Mogilev, the Swedish army moved
southeast to Roslavl in order to bypass the devastation in front of Smolensk and
create a threat from the rear of the Russian army, concentrated near the village of
On August 22, 1708, Swedish troops turned northeast to Smolensk. Peter led
the infantry and convoys to the east and northeast, and the Russian cavalry
increasingly disturbed the Swedes.
On August 30, near the village of Dobroye, the Swedish avant-garde was
under threat of defeat.
And on September 9, Charles XII himself was in a skirmish near Rayovka
under the threat of death or captivity.
The Swedish army needed supplies of food for six weeks and artillery to go to
Moscow, and Lewenhaupt with a convoy or reliable news of his whereabouts was
not there.
Swedish-Finnish troops numbering 12 thousand people under the command
of Georg Liebecker at this time went north with the aim of capturing St. Petersburg
and nearby ports, as well as destroying the Russian fleet. Russian troops
numbering 24,500 people under the command of Fyodor Apraksin were stationed
in Ingermanland. To protect St. Petersburg, Apraksin fortified himself on the banks
of the Neva River with a detachment of 8 thousand people: patrolling was carried
out by numerous patrols and ships.
On August 29, 1708,a battle took place near the Neva. The Swedish troops,
who tried to immediately capture St. Petersburg, failed and, due to a serious
shortage of supplies, were forced to retreat.
On September 11-13, 1708, a military council was held in the village of
Starishi with the participation of the king and his generals. The question of the
further movement of the Swedish army was decided: through Smolensk directly to
Moscow or south to Ukraine. As a result of the council, the path through Ukraine
was chosen.
On September 17, Tsar Peter received information that the Swedes were
crossing the Sozh at Krichev and reconnoitering the roads to Starodub and Pochep
in order to replenish their resources. At the military council, it was decided to
divide the Russian army: Sheremetev left with the main forces parallel to the army
of the Swedish king to the south to Bryansk, Bour with the cavalry was supposed
to disturb the rear of Charles XII, and Peter and Menshikov with the most mobile
units were sent to search for and intercept Lewenhaupt.
"Mother of the Battle of Poltava"
On September 28, 1708, in the battle near the village of Lesnoy, the troops of Peter
I defeated Lewenhaupt's corps, which was moving from Riga to join the main army
of Charles. The enemy corps was overtaken near the village of Lesnoy. The
Swedish commander had to take the battle, which began with the attack of the
Russians. Peter I, with the arrival of fresh dragoon cavalry, cut off the enemy's
road to Propoysk and intensified the onslaught on the Swedes. Lewenhaupt had to
destroy the remnants of his huge convoy (most of it became Russian booty), and
only half of his corps, pursued by Russian cavalry, managed to reach the royal
marching camp. The total losses of the Swedes amounted to 8,5 thousand killed
and wounded, 45 officers and 700 soldiers were captured. The trophies of the
Russian army were 17 guns, 44 banners and about 3 thousand carts with provisions
and ammunition.
Cut off from supply bases, the Swedish army by the spring of 1709 began to
experience a shortage of ammunition - hand grenades, cannonballs, lead and
gunpowder. Therefore, it was decided to move in the direction of the fortress of
Poltava, where there were supplies in case of war with Turkey.
Battle of Poltava
Despite the fact that the Swedish army suffered greatly during the cold winter of
1708-1709, Charles XII sought a general battle, as his army "melted" in small
On April 25, the siege of Poltava began, but the Swedes could not take the fortress,
despite serious losses (almost 6 thousand people). On May 15, Russian troops
under the command of Menshikov managed to transport reinforcements and
ammunition to the besieged city. Soon it became known about the defeat on May
13 near the village of Lidukhovo of the Lithuanian hetman Jan Sapieha, who was
moving towards the Dnieper.
Peter arrived at the troops on June 4 and, convinced of the lack of initiative of the
exhausted Swedes, gave the order to prepare for the decisive battle.
From June 15 to June 20, the Russian army made the transition to the west bank of
the Vorskla River north of Poltava and began a rapprochement with the Swedish to
start a general battle: it took place on June 27, 1709 near Poltava, where Charles
XII continued to stand, waiting in vain for help from the Turks or Poles.
The Russian army, thanks to the successful actions at Kalisz and Lesnaya,
managed to create and consolidate an overwhelming numerical advantage in
manpower and artillery. In the army of Peter I there were 57 thousand people, 282
guns and 23 thousand Kalmyks, Don and Ukrainian Cossacks - only about 80
thousand people, and Charles XII - 26,6 thousand people, 10 thousand Cossacks
and 41 guns with extremely limited gunpowder and without any hopes for the
approach of reserves.
After the defeat near Poltava, the Swedish army fled to Perevolochnaya - the
crossing at the confluence of the Vorskla and the Dnieper. But it turned out to be
impossible to transport the army across the Dnieper. Then Charles XII handed over
the command of his army to Lewenhaupt and, together with Mazepa and 2
thousand soldiers and Cossacks, fled to Ochakov.
On June 30, 1709, the Swedish army was surrounded by troops under the
command of Menshikov and capitulated. On the banks of the Dnieper near
Perevolochna, 16,947 demoralized enemy soldiers and officers, led by General
Lewenhaupt, surrendered to the Russian 9,000-strong detachment. In total, as a
result of the Battle of Poltava, Sweden lost more than 9000 people killed and
wounded and 18000 prisoners, Russia's losses amounted to at least 1572 people
killed and 3290 wounded. The Cossacks, captured on the side of the Swedes, were
executed. The trophies of the winners were 28 guns, 127 banners and standards and
the entire royal treasury. The Royal Swedish Army, tested in campaigns in
Northern Europe, ceased to exist. Taking refuge in the Ottoman Empire, Charles
XII tried to convince Sultan Ahmed III to start a war against Russia.
Polish-Saxon campaign:
The Battle of Narva largely contributed to the fact that the Russian army was not
perceived by the Swedes as a serious opponent, which in turn prompted
Charles XII to concentrate all his forces against the remaining "members" of the
Northern Alliance:
Usurpation of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth:
In 1701, Charles XII opposed Augustus II with all his might. The Swedish king
intended to take advantage of the discontent of the Polish and Lithuanian gentry
and replace Augustus II, putting a pro-Swedish candidate as king, in order to fully
control Poland, turning the Commonwealth into a buffer zone between the Swedes
and the Russians:
The successes of the Swedes in Poland:
In July 1701, the Swedish army defeated the Saxon troops of Augustus II on the
Western Dvina, throwing them away from Riga.
By September 1701, the Swedes had occupied Courland.
In 1702, the Swedish army invaded Poland and inflicted a series of major defeats
on the army of Augustus II.
In 1702, Warsaw was occupied and a victory was won at Kliszow, in 1703 another
defeat was inflicted on the Saxon army at Pułtusk, then after a long siege Thorn
was taken, and the Saxon troops were expelled from Poland.
The result of the numerous defeats of the Polish army was that some of the
deputies of the Sejm deposed Augustus II as king of the Polish-Lithuanian
Commonwealth. In the summer of 1704, the Swedish protégé Stanislav
Leszczynski was proclaimed the new king.
Supporters of Augustus II in Poland did not recognize Stanisław Leszczyński as
king and united in 1704 in the Sandomierz Confederation. On August 19, 1704, the
Narva Treaty was concluded between Russia and representatives of the Polish-
Lithuanian Commonwealth on an alliance against Sweden; according to this treaty,
the Commonwealth officially entered the war on the side of the Northern
Union. Russia, together with Saxony, launched military operations on Polish
territory. On July 31, 1705, the allied Polish-Saxon army under the command of
Lieutenant General O. A. von Paikul was defeated at Warsaw. On October 4,
Stanisław Leszczyński was crowned in Warsaw. At the end of 1705, the main
Russian-Polish forces under the command of Tsar Peter stopped for the winter in
Grodno. Soon the tsar left the location of the army, entrusting the command to
Field Marshal-Lieutenant General G. B. Ogilvy. In January 1706, Charles XII
advanced large forces in this direction and blocked the Russian army in
Grodno. The Allies expected to fight after the approach of Saxon
reinforcements. But on February 2, the Swedish army of Field Marshal K. G.
Renschöld (8,000-12,000, without artillery) inflicted a crushing defeat on the
Saxon-Russian army of General I. M. von der Schulenburg (up to 20,000, 75 guns)
at the Battle of Fraustadt.
Оставшись без союзника, русская армия была вынуждена отступить в
направлении Киева. Г. Б. Огильви сумел осуществить блестящий манёвр,
воспользовавшись вскрытием рек. Отходом русской конницы командовал
Меншиков. Король Карл только через две недели сумел собрать армию и
выступить в преследование. Ввиду весенней распутицы шведская армия
застряла в районе Пинских болот, и король отказался от преследования
русской армии. Вместо этого он бросил свои силы на истребление крепостей,
где находились польские и казацкие гарнизоны. Король Карл XII простоял с
основными силами в Пинске около месяца, пережидая распутицу и
подтягивая отставшие полки, затем в начале лета перевёл свою армию в
район Дубно—Луцк. Здесь, на незатронутые боевые действия и изобильной
продовольствием Волыни, армия провела ещё месяц. Карл не последовал к
Днепру за русскими войсками, а, опустошив Полесье, в июле 1706 года
развернул свою армию против саксонцев. В августе армия короля перешла
Вислу и соединилась с войсками Реншильда юго-западнее Варшавы. На этот
раз шведы не остановились в Польше, а вторглись уже на территорию самой
Peace Treaty: On September 13, 1706, Augustus II, who had lost most of the
country, secretly concluded a peace agreement with Sweden. Under the treaty, he
renounced the Polish throne in favor of Stanislav Leshchinsky, terminated the
alliance with Russia and pledged to pay an indemnity for the maintenance of the
Swedish army.
Battle of Kaliszna:
Nevertheless, not daring to announce the betrayal in the presence of the 20,000strong Russian corps under the command of Menshikov, Augustus II was forced to
participate with his troops in the battle of Kalisz on October 18. The battle ended
with the complete victory of the Russian army and the capture of the Swedish
commander Mardefelt. This battle was the largest involving the Russian army
since the beginning of the war. But King Charles XII ordered the publication of the
Treaty of Altranstaed, and despite the brilliant victory, Russia lost its last ally.
After the victory at Poltava, Peter I managed to restore the Northern Union:
On October 9, 1709, a new treaty of alliance with Saxony was signed in Toruń
October 11 – A new peace treaty is signed with Denmark, under which it
pledges to declare war on Sweden and Russia to begin hostilities in the Baltic
States and Finland
In the campaign of 1710, the Russian army of Field Marshal B. P.
Sheremetev, after a long siege, took Riga, after which it occupied other Baltic
fortresses: Elbing, Dünamünde, Pernov, Revel, thus completing the conquest of
Estonia and Livonia.
At the same time, the corps of Admiral General F. M. Apraksin in the
presence of Tsar Peter I occupied Vyborg, after which a separate detachment of
Major General R. V. Bruce occupied Kexholm.
In 1711, in continental Europe, only Pomerania remained under the rule of
the Swedes, as well as the possession of Bremen-Verdun
In August-September 1711, allied Danish and Saxon troops (plus several
Russian dragoon regiments) entered Pomerania and began the siege of Wismar and
Stralsund, however, having no siege artillery, they were forced to retreat; a 6,000strong Danish corps was left near Wismar.
In March 1712, the Russian army was sent to Pomerania under the command
of Field Marshal A. D. Menshikov. After his arrival, the Allied forces in
Pomerania numbered 85,000: 48,000 Russians, 27,000 Danes, and 10,000
Saxons. On March 31, in Kolding, the Allies finally managed to agree on a plan of
military operations, according to which it was necessary to land troops on the
island of Rügen and besiege Stralsund.
In September 1712, the Swedes went into action and landed 10,000 infantry
and 1800 cavalry on the island of Rügen under the command of General
Stenbock. Soon Stenbock sent his troops across the narrow strait between Rügen
and Pomerania and, leaving a garrison of two thousand in the fortress of Stralsund,
moved to Mecklenburg.
On November 3, the Swedes captured Rostock, after which the Danes lifted
the siege of Wismar.
On December 20, 1712, the allied Danish-Saxon army suffered a new defeat
at Gadebusch at Magnus Stenbock. The approaching Russian army forced
Stenbock to take refuge in the Holstein fortress of Tönning. Having exhausted all
possibilities of resistance, Field Marshal Stenbock capitulated in May 1713, but the
Holsteiners themselves surrendered the fortress only in February 1714.
On September 18, 1713, as a result of the siege, the fortress of Stettin fell.
In 1714, the Swedish king Charles XII, expelled from the Ottoman Empire,
returned to Sweden and focused on the war in Pomerania. The center of hostilities
was Stralsund.
On May 1, 1715, in response to a demand for the return of Stettin and other
territories, Prussia declared war on Sweden
On December 23, the Allied army under the command of Prussian Field
Marshal Leopold Anhalt-Dessau took Stralsund.
The events of the last period of the Northern War were greatly influenced by
the radically changed foreign policy situation in Europe in 1716-1717. The discord
between the allies, the desire of a number of them to obtain territorial acquisitions
or political benefits at the expense of Russian troops, the increasing opposition to
Russia from a number of leading powers (primarily England and France) dragged
out the Northern War for another five years.
In May 1718, the Congress of Åland opened, designed to work out the terms
of a peace treaty between Russia and Sweden.
On November 30, 1718, during the siege of Fredrikshold, Charles XII was
killed. His sister, Ulrike Eleonora, ascended the Swedish throne. Under her,
England's position at the Swedish court strengthened
Sweden actively took advantage of the changing political mood in Europe
and throughout 1720 actively signed peace treaties with various powers:
1. On
January 7, peace was concluded with Saxony and the Polish-Lithuanian
2. On February 1, Sweden reconciled with Prussia and finally ceded possessions
in Pomerania to it (with the exception of the territories occupied by
3. On July 14, the Swedes made peace with Denmark, which received small
territories in Schleswig-Holstein, a monetary indemnity and resumed the
collection of duties from Swedish ships for passage through the Sunda Strait.
On May 8, 1721, new peace negotiations with Russia began in Nystadt. On
August 30, 1721, the Treaty of Nystad was signed, the main provisions of which
1. Eternal and inseparable peace between the Tsar of Russia and the King of
Sweden and their successors;
2. Full amnesty on both sides, with the exception of the Cossacks who followed
Mazepa and Kostya Gordeenko;
3. All hostilities shall cease within 14 days;
4. The Swedes cede part of Livonia, Estonia, Ingermanland, part of Karelia to
the royal family for eternal possession [1];
5. Швеции возвращается Финляндия и выплачивается компенсация;
6. Исповедание веры на данных территориях свободно.
Итоги Северной войны
1.Россия отвоевала побережье Балтийского моря, вернув потерянные в
прежних войнах земли, и захватив новые, никогда ей не принадлежавшие.
2.Успехи в войне и активное участие в европейской политике способствовали
становлению её как великой державы.
3.Война полностью изменила в пользу России соотношение сил на Балтике; в
то же время война не решила ситуацию на юге России (где ей противостоял
союзник Швеции — Османская империя), которая к концу войны
4.По итогам войны к России были присоединены Ингрия (Ижора), Карелия,
Эстляндия, Лифляндия (Ливония), основан Санкт-Петербург. Российское
влияние прочно утвердилось и в Курляндии.
5.Была решена ключевая задача, поставленная Петром I — обеспечение
выхода к морю и налаживание морской торговли с Европой.
Однако в ходе войны Россия пережила серьёзный экономический кризис:
6.Сумма налогов, собираемых с населения с 1701 по 1724 год, выросла в 3,5
7.Ревизия населения 1710 года показала сокращение податных хозяйств на 20
%, причём в областях, прилегавших к основным театрам военных действий,
сокращение достигало 40 %.
8.Население России относительно 1678 года выросло на 39 %. Население
России в 1700 ― 1721 годов выросло в общей сложности на 500 тысяч
человек. Война и реформы вызвали замедление темпов роста населения, но
не его убыль.
В историю Финляндии самый тяжёлый период войны с 1714 по 1721 год
вошёл под названием Большая ненависть. До заключения мира страна
подвергалась многочисленным грабежам и насилию со стороны шведских и
русских войск, что было нормой при ведении войны в XVIII веке.
1.Швеция утратила своё былое могущество и превратилась во
второстепенную державу.
2.Были потеряны не только территории, уступленные России, но и многие
владения Швеции на южном берегу Балтийского моря (в руках Швеции
остались лишь Висмар и небольшая часть Померании).
3.Прямым результатом катастрофической для Швеции Северной войны
становится наступление «Эры свободы», которая характеризуется урезанием
власти короля и резким усилением роли Риксдага.
Речь Посполитая, несмотря на участие в антишведской коалиции не
получила никаких территориальных приобретений, в то же время переходит
во всё большую зависимость от России, особенно после Немого сейма 1717
Северная война по оценкам многих историков была сильно затянута и могла
окончиться быстрее, это отмечал и сам Петр 1, который называл ее
«Троевременной кровавой и весьма опасной школой», однако ее итоги
позволили России укрепиться на мировом поле и стать одним из сильнейших
государств с регулярной армией и флотом. Кроме того она способствовала
общему пересмотру военных сил европейских стран и смещению Швеции с
позиций доминирующего государства.
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